To whom shall I speak, and give warning, that they may hear? behold, their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken.—Jer. 6.10

[A Scotch Antidote Against the English Infection of Arminianism, by Robert Baillie.]
The English Infection

Which little Book may be
(through Gods blessing) very
useful to preserve those that
are yet sound in the faith,
from the Infection
Great Book.

Minister of the Gospel at Glasgow.

London, Printed for Samuel Gellibrand, at the
Ball in Paul’s Church-yard. 1652.
To the Ęquitable
THE shortness of the following Treatise admits not long prefacing: It has been much wished & long expected from the learned Divines of this land, that a plain & short Manual of the chief controversies should have been published, whereby the people might be forearmed {} against the invasion of seducing spirits which everywhere are but too frequent. Long ago too much stuff of this kind is provided for Scholars, These have but too many and too big Volumes of controversies always at their hand; but our people are not so furnished either with sword or buckler as need were, which makes them to their shame & grief, when they run counter with adversaries (which they cannot {} choose but oft to do) lie open to wounds: The children of this world are in this, as in many other things, wiser than the children of light: the Jesuits let not their Proselytes have any lack of their Encheiridia, their Vade mecum, their little pocket Books of controversy, to enable them both to strike and keep, when they meet with our people.

These years bygone too much time hath been lost {} among us on Ceremonies and Disciplinary Questions. It has been the policy of Satan to hold us intent, & busy on these out-sconces, that so the main fortresses of Antichrist should stand safe without assault. Would to God that our too too long and hot skirmishes about purging of the ditches of Bishops, and Ceremonies, had not cast open at our backs the gates of our great Towers, and given opportunity {} to our Enemy to undermine the very foundations of our Church.

Of all the Errors which in too great a number do corrupt England this day, these which are called after the infamous name of Arminius, are the most prevalent. While therefore the Learned may be pleased to demit themselves for the good of the people, while some gracious Divine may be moved to take leisure for the {} publishing of some short and plain System of all, or of the most material controversies, it were good that some little thing were done in this beginning of our glorious Liberty from Oppressions, for the arming of the godly against the errors of Arminius, which so malapertly these bygone years have been blown abroad, and the opposition thereto hath been so strictly discharged, and so severely punished: while [until] {} a better comes, the subsequent Treatise will serve somewhat for that end. Of its worth let every man pronounce according as he finds. In its first birth it was a Speech delivered upon a short warning in the general Assembly of Glasgow, and there not misliked. Since that time it hath not increased much in stature. If the feature of it please any intelligent eye, it is easy in a few nights for any to make the {} members of it grow so great & long as you will: but it is the Author’s opinion, that treatises intended to the forenamed ends are the more handsome & serviceable, the more short and simple they be; and the more unprofitable & unpleasant, the more accurate and long: However, such as it is, enjoy it who will, misregard it who please. {7}

An Antidote against
Who Arminius
Arminius was a late Preacher of Holland, minister first at Amsterdam, and then professor of Divinity at Leiden, a man of very great ingine [ability, wit]; in his outward conversation almost unblameable; but much given to innovation and self-conceit. The Novelties which mainly he loved were divers errours of our old Country-man Pelagius, which the Jesuits in his {8} time had revived. After that the Spirit of God had banished the Heresies of Arius, Nestorius, Macedonius, and Eutiches, which Satan in their persons had raised against the persons of the Trinity, against the nature and person of Christ, Pelagius, a Scotish man, did oppose not the Nature, nor the Person, but the Grace of God. Against him the Lord raised Augustine, who by the force of Scripture beat the Heretick in all his errors, yet there were some relicts of that subtle Heresy after Augustine’s death, which set up the {9} head both in the Eastern and Western Churches sometimes more, sometimes less. In the days of Remigius and Hincmarus, great was the trouble that the Semipelagians made in Germany and France, as we see in the cause of Goteschalcus, set down by Gerhardus Vossius, but much more honestly by Primate Usher.
When he came to be infected with errour From that time there was not much din about these questions, till after the year 1590, when Molina a Spanish Jesuit began to renew many of the Pelagian {10} errors about Grace and Freewill, Election, and Reprobation, and such heads.

Against him Alvarez, a Dominican at Rome, did oppose at length: This fire betwixt these two Orders began to burn first in Spain, and then in West Flanders: from Lovan, the Jesuit Lessius blew over the reik [smoke] to Amsterdam, where Arminius was Preacher, the flame burning in his wanton Engine [wit], brake out first openly in a Treatise against [William] Perkins’ "Golden Chain," thereafter he did spread his errours {11} wherever he might: Being called to the University of Leiden to succeed good Junius, for sometime he was quiet, but at once with all diligence he infected not only the youth in the University, but by them very many Ministers over all the Land.

His petulant wit was not content to broach these remainders of Pelagianism which Molina and his followers professed, but beside he fell on many more dangerous novations & at last began to like {12} much of Vorstius’ and Socinus’ tenets.

This fire in the Holland Church burnt boldly in the time of the Truce with Spain, and was likely to threaten their estate with ruin in the time of peace, more than the Spanish sword had done in all their wars.

When Arminianism was crushed in Holland. So long as Arminius lived there was no remedy, when God had killed him, the evil grew no less; some Statesmen and Court Ministers for their own ends did hold these errours on foot; the will-minded {13} people cried still for a general Assembly as the only help of their Schisms: the Arminians by might and main set themselves against the meeting of a Synod, as the certain ruin of their Party; so long as their Patron Barnavelt lived, they got the Assembly, shifted, but when that Traitor’s head was stricken off, & King James our blessed Prince had advised often the States, and half by threatenings commanded them, at last a general Assembly was called at Dort, not only {14} of Divines and ruling Elders from all the Provincial Synods of the Netherlands, but almost from the whole Reformed Churches; there the most excellent Synod being met that Christendom had seen for some hundred years; the Arminian questions were handled at leisure from November to May, and all that was needful, was clearly decided.

That labour was so blessed by God, that the Land which through the Arminian Schism and Errours was at the {15} point of ruin, since that time hath had peace from these turbulent Schismatics.

When Arminianism did take root in Britain. But here the pity, Britain, whose waters mainly had slakened [quenched] that fire abroad, began at once to be scorched at home by some sparks of that flame.

The hopes of the Arminians in England were but small so long as K. James did live, for that good Prince both in word and writing did threaten to burn these Hereticks if any of them should appear in his Dominions; see his Declaration {16} against Vorstius: yea, so long as Abbot was in grace at Court, the Arminians kept a low sail, but after that his Successor even in his own time had come in favour, that unhappy Sect under the patronage of Mountagu and White’s learning began to spread far and near, yea, at last silence in a public Edict was enjoined to their opposers, and all favours conferred on those who had skill and will to promote that Cause, & many evident disgraces poured on well-deserving {17} men for no other reason but their Anti-Arminian spirit.

All this time our Church [The Church of Scotland] was free of these evils; but so soon as the advancers of Arminianism at the English Court, began to intermeddle with the affairs of our Kingdom, at once these men were eyed, who inclined that way, prime places were put into their hands for no other virtue the World could discern in them, but their boldness to let out their inclination towards {18} the Arminian Errour.

This way of advancement being perceived, incontinent [immediately] many among us set their hearts towards that art which was likeliest in haste to promote their fortunes.

The British Arminians decline to Popery, but the Belgick to Socinianism. It is to be remarked that the Arminian spirit in Holland leads men to hell another way than here in Britain; there the Arminians with great boldness running after Vorstius & Socinus with a marvelous petulancy fell to brangle [shake into confusion] the Trinity of {19} the Divine persons, yea, the simplicity of the Divine nature itself.

But that Devil finding this his rashness to revive openly Manes & Arrius, did make people abhor him, and flee away, he became more wary; so that among us he lets these old condemned Heresies alone, and goes another way to work; He leads by a new method to the errours of Antichrist; A Netherlandish Arminian will scorn the superstitions, The Idolatries, the Tyrannies of the Romish {20} Church, but is much inclined after Vorstius and Socinus, under the pretext of Liberty to run licentiously into Heresies condemned in the first Ecumenick Councils: On the contrary, a British Arminian with the Ancients will abhor the Extravagances of Vorstius and Socinus, yet their heart is hot and inflamed after the abominations of Rome: God who put Confusion in Babel, hath divided Satan’s Kingdom against itself, else this subtle Devil might have endangered {21} the safety of the whole Reformed Church; But while in Holland the horn of Arminianism is now broken out of his front long and great, and in England the horn of Popery, we trust these two long black ugly horns shall make that evil spirit both here and there so well known, that he shall not be able to do so much harm anywhere as once was feared from him; however the great Hammer that brake the neck of the beast over Sea, was that {22} National Synod and the main hope we have to get it mastered here at this time is by the hand of our God in this present Assembly.

The five Arminian Articles.
The Five Articles.

For the story I will say no more but come to the Doctrines; The multitude of their singularities was reduced at their own desire, both in the Conference at Hage, and Synod of Dort to five Articles, or rather four, for Grace and Freewill are commonly disputed together. {23}

The state of the question in the first Article.
First article stated.

The first Article concerns Predestination, the next the Death of Christ, the third and fourth Grace and Free-will, the fifth Perseverance. We may add Justification as a sixth, whereon both these over Sea, and their followers among us, run as mad as on any of the former.

Concerning Election, the first and chief part of Predestination, they teach, that it is posterior to Faith, Works, and Perseverance; Arminius at the beginning {24} made faith alone previous to Election, but long since his followers, and our men1 also join works, yea, perseverance to the end in faith, and works; as if God first did foresee by his eternal Prescience, some men of their own Free-will assenting to his Call in time, believing and going on to the end in faith and good works, and after this foresight, did pass his Decree of Election to glory upon these men clothed with the named qualities.

But we teach that {25} Faith, Works, and Perseverance are posterior to Election; that this is the cause, root, fountain, whence all grace in us does flow; that our Election hath no Antecedent cause, condition, or good quality on our part, but flows merely from God’s good pleasure, and mercy looking upon us, lying in our blood, corrupted with original sin, and in that case choosing us of his free mercy to be members of his Son, to whom he will give grace and glory, though others as {26} good and nothing worse than we are permitted to lie still in the mass of corruption for the glory of his mercy to us and justice towards them, without any ground of gloriation to the one, or complaint to the other, as if any wrong were done them, when they are past by.

Our first argument for absolute election is from Eph. 1.3. This our Doctrine of Election it is clear from Scripture, (1.) see Ephes. 1.3, Blessed be God, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in Christ, according as he hath chosen us in him, that we should {27} be holy and blameless before him in love, having predestinated us to the adoption of children, according to the good pleasure of his will.

Here we are chosen to be holy and blameless; not because we were holy, therefore we were chosen: Holiness is made posterior to our Election. Now Faith, Perseverance, Charity, and such graces are all parts of holiness, are all fruits of the holy Spirit. Here also all spiritual blessings for which God is {28} to be praised, flows from this original; Election is the rule according to which God distributes these graces.

Adoption also is made a fruit of Election, yea, the only reason of this Election is made God’s good pleasure. By this place of Scripture Augustine beat down the Pelagians, who taught an Election of foreseen works. God foresaw {29} (saith the Pelagian) who should be holy & unblameable by their own freewill, and therefore he did elect them before the foundation of the World, because he foresaw they would be such.2 What answers he to this Arminian Objection in the mouth of the Pelagians? Let us behold the Apostles words, and see whether therefore he did elect us because we were to be holy, or that we might be such: Blessed says the {30} Apostle, be God who has chosen us not because we were to be such, but that we might be such: Why the matter is certain, it is manifest, for we were to be such because God predestinating did choose us that we by his grace might become such: you see doubtless, you see with what evidence of Apostolic utterance, this grace is defended, against which human merits extols itself, as if man did give anything to God, and it were rendered to him.3 So does the Father [Augustine] convince the Pelagians from these same words; he {31} also closes the mouths of the Semipelagians who taught that albeit works and holiness was not prior to Election, yet Faith or at least some beginnings of faith behoved on our part to go before, to these thus he speaks, Let even these hear in this passage "predestinated according to his purpose, who works all things" he that works all things, works also that we begin to believe, neither doth faith itself go before {32} his work, for he has chosen us that we might believe, not because we did believe.4 Against both the whole and half Pelagians, so he concludes triumphantly, Against so clear a trumpet of Truth, what person of sober and watchful faith will admit the contrary voice of any man.5

Our second argument from Rom. 11.5. Another Scripture, Rom. 11.5, Even so also at this present time there is a remnant according to the election of grace, and if of grace it is no more of works otherwise grace is no more grace. {33}

Here the Reason is given why among the misbelieving obstinate wicked Jews, there was a few remnant who did believe and were saved: the grace, faith, salvation of this Remnant is ascribed to their Election as the Cause, & this Election is affirmed to come alone of God’s Grace, and denied to have proceeded of any of their works, yea, these things are not simply affirmed, that the grace and salvation of the remnant came from Election, that this Election {34} was of grace that it was not of works, but farther works and grace in this matter of Election are declared to be incompatible, so that those who make our Election to depend on works, or to be posterior in God’s mind to his foreknowledge of our works, say what they will, they are enemies of the grace of God.

This place is so clear, that Arminius so long as he lived durst never ascribe Election to good works as his followers now do, yea, the Lutherans {35} to this day dare not do it: but the place clearly enough refutes even that which they say, that Election is of Faith albeit not of works, especially as Arminius expounded Faith, for he made Election and Justification to depend on Faith, not as it is an instrument applying Christ, but as it is an Evangelical work which God hath appointed under the gospel to be a saving quality of itself, as perfect obedience should have been under the Law. In this {36} sense Faith is a true work, and who denies Election to be of works denies it as well to be of Faith, which is a work. But take Faith as you will, this place removes it from Election for it ascribes Election to God’s grace alone excluding Faith, works, or whatever is in us: The clearness of this place changed Augustine his mind, and delivered him from that Lutheran errour,6 wherein long he lay, believing Election to have been of Faith, albeit not of works. {37}

This was the issue of my argumentation that I said, God has not chosen any man’s works in his foreknowledge, but he has chosen faith in his foreknowledge, but I had not at that time diligently enough enquired, neither had I yet found what was that Election of Grace, of which the Apostle spake.7

Our third argument from Rom. 8.28. A third Scripture is, Rom. 8.28, Whom he did predestinate, them he also called, and whom he, &c. Here Election is made prior to calling and Justification, as they to glorification, much more {38} to faith, works, perseverance which are all posterior to calling. We must first be Justified before we can persevere to the end; we must first be called by the Word & Spirit before we can believe. Faith then, and works and perseverance are posterior to effectual vocation, much more to Election, which in this Scripture is set before vocation itself, yea, before all the consequences and effects of vocation.

The Arminians cannot {39} get away from the grip of this place, but by wresting of it pitifully, both at Hage Conference and in the Synod, and all their posterior writs, they with a strange impudence avow that Predestination, Vocation, Justification in this place is no ways relative either to grace or glory, but only to the cross and affliction: of all the malapert Wresters of Scriptures that live this day, the Remonstrants are the chief. This present subterfuge is Socinus his Invention, {40} a wicked Heretick, who denies the merit, the power, and the true satisfactions of Christ’s death & blood, and so indeed he hath reason if his grounds be true; For with Arrius he spoils Christ of his Godhead, which if he did want [lack], his blood and death could not be satisfactory for any one sin, yet this most pernicious heretick, the Arminians think no shame to follow, in wresting the present Scripture, but to little purpose, for the analogy of the {41} whole Scripture, the scope of this Text will not let them expound Predestination, Calling, and Justification as Socinus would, if we admit in this place three of their greatest friends, & of our greatest foes to be Judges, Pelagius, Arminius, Molina. From them all we have testimonies that this place cannot admit Socinus’ interpretation, but I must haste.

Our fourth argument from Rom. 9.11. A fourth Scripture is, Rom. 9.11, For the Children being not yet born, neither yet having done any {42} good or evil that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth, &c.

The purpose of God according to Election is understood here of God’s Eternal Predestination as Pelagius and Arminius both in their Commentaries on the place confess. This Election is ascribed only to God who calls; All works are excluded because they were none, there could be none, the persons not yet being born. Our Adversaries {43} run here two divers ways from this text.

Spalato understands works as existing not, as future, saying, that Jacob was elected not for any works which he had done, but for those which he was to do, which was before God in his prescience.

This Pelagian subterfuge Augustine treads down in the first birth: This is the lurking hole {44} of your darkness, wherefore truly you err, for the truth saying not of works, but of him that calleth, you say, Jacob was loved for the works which God foresaw he was to do, and so you contradict the Apostle saying, not of works, as if he could not have said, not of works present, but for works to come.8

Arminius flies another way, granting that Jacob’s Election was not of works, yet avowing it was of faith, this hole Augustine stopped long ago, when the Semipelagians would have been {45} at it, Did the Apostle say not of works, but of him that believeth, even this also did the Apostle take from man that he might give all to God, saying but of him that calleth, not with every call, but by such a call wherewith we are made to believe.9

Our fifth argument from Acts 13.48. One other Scripture, Acts 13.48, As many as were ordained to life eternal believed: God’s Ordination to life eternal goes before faith: belief is here an effect ascribed to Election, as the cause whence it comes. To fly [flee] this Argument, {46} the Arminians follow Socinus to a worse errour than they would eschew, they expound, ordained to eternal life, those who, before all faith and calling, by their own free-will were fitted and disposed for faith and salvation: This is such an high degree of Pelagianism that the Lutherans and Papists also, for the most part, do abhor it.
Second Article stated.
Second article stated.

IN the second Article of Redemption they {47} teach that Christ by his death intended the universal Redemption of all men without distinction of Elect and Reprobate; that he by his death did actually impetrate [acquire] to all the favour and grace of God, that the application of the graces impetrated depends on the free-will of man, some according to their Liberty making use of that purchased gift, Others to whom that grace and salvation was alike purchased and intended on God’s part, by their own {48} neglect and contempt, according to the same liberty of their will rejecting it.

We teach that Christ did give his life and blood alone for those who get good by it, only for the faithful, even the Elect his own members.

Absurdities consequent to the Arminian tenet. Horrible absurdities follow on the Arminian Tenet, some whereof they acknowledge, and others are bound on their back by inevitable consequences, to wit: That the fruit of Christ’s death depends absolutely {49} upon the contingent assent of man’s free-will, that notwithstanding his death it was possible and very contingent [uncertain, undetermined], that all men had perished, that no soul had been freed from hell by his blood, that God should never have had any Church at all; That now by the virtue of his death, true grace is given to all; That all Pagans as well under the Law as Gospel, who never heard of Scripture, are truly reconciled to God by his death; That all Infants even of {50} Pagans are saved by Christ, who die before the years of discretion; That in no man is any original sin, but every one when he is born is put in the state of innocency; That Baptism is not necessary, for no sin is therein remitted because there is none then to be remitted.
Our first argument that Christ died only for the Elect from John 17.9. But however see how our doctrine is grounded on Scripture, John 17.9, I pray for them, I pray not for the world, but for those thou hast given me out of the world, for they {51} are thine: Christ had no intention to give his life for them for whom he avows, he would not pray, at that same time when he was going to die; shall he give his life for those for whom he would not open his mouth to pray; for his own only, for his Father’s proper ones, who are given over and recommended to him, for these only and not the World he avows, he does then pray.
Our second argument from Ephes. 5.24. Another, Ephes. 5.24, {52} Christ is the head of the Church, and a Saviour of the body. Christ also hath loved his Church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it, and present it to himself a glorious Church: Christ here gives himself to death, not for all but for the Church only, he is a Saviour only of the body of these whom he loves as his spouse, whom he sanctifies and presents to God one day glorious without spot; such are not the world of the damned. {53}
Our third argument from John 10.14. A third Scripture, John 10.14, I am the good shepherd and know the sheep, and am known of mine, and lay down my life for my sheep: for whom hath Christ laid down his life? Only for his sheep, for those that are his, for those that know him as their shepherd, of whom he taketh notice as of his sheep, but for the Goats of the world whom he knows not, over whom he never bare rule, who never were in his fold, he {54} lays not down his life.
Our fourth from John 15.13. A fourth Scripture, John 15.13, Greater love than this, hath no man, that a man should lay down his life for his friend: Christ lays down his life for his friends, not for those who live and die strangers & enemies to him. For whom he dies, to them he shews the highest degree of love, but to numbers of the Reprobates, he never sends his Word, much less his saving grace; how then have they the fruit of his greatest affection, {55} even to die for them.
Our fifth argument from Isaiah 53, &c. See also that of the 53rd chapter of Isaiah: By his stripes are we healed, and that of the Apostle, He was made sin for us, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him; those for whom Christ was slain, are healed by his stripes, are made righteous and absolved from sin by his blood, which he as their pledge shed for them: It is the justice of God, that for whose sin he hath received an infinite satisfaction, To these should not be imputed {56} their sins for a second satisfaction in their own eternal torments, but so it is, that numbers of people are never freed from their sin, never healed but perish.
The Arminian objection answered. Against all this their prime Objection, in these Scriptures wherein Christ is said to have died for all, the Answer is easy, that no man can deny but divers Scriptures which are conceived in universal terms, must be expounded with restrictions, for example, Christ is all in all, {57} when I am risen I will draw all men to me, I will pour my spirit on all flesh, they shall be all taught of God, will any man have these universal Scriptures absolute and illimited; So doth Augustine answer and beat off the Pelagians when they press these Scriptures of Christ’s dying for all & every one; his words I pass for the time; when the Semipelagians rested not content with his Answers to them he replies, de Correp. & Gratia, c. 14, in these words well worthy the {58} reciting, By all men we understand all kinds of men, divided by whatsoever distinctions, Kings or private persons, noble or ignoble, high or low, learned or unlearned, whole or sick, wise, simple, foolish, rich, poor, indifferent, men, women, babes, children, youths, old men, of all languages, of all dispositions, of all trades, of all professions, and according to their divers inclinations, innumerable ways diversified.10 {59}
The third and fourth Article stated.
Third and fourth article stated.

Concerning the third and fourth Article of Grace and Free-will, consider that Free-will doth denote formally the natural faculty of man’s will alone, yet because the light of understanding must direct the will, which of itself is blind, and the will enlightened does command the affections and the other powers of sense and motion as her servants, for this connexion {60} and dependence which is betwixt the will and all the natural powers of the soul, the question about the power of all the natural faculties of man in furthering his own salvation goes usually under the title of Free-will alone.

The question of Free-will, or of the power of nature, I mean of all the natural faculties in the soul of man, whether understanding, will, affections, or any other in the matter of salvation, This question hath many branches, but for shortness we only touch {61} two heads therein: First, how far nature can further grace & salvation; Next, how far it can hinder it. In the first head sundry teach that nature alone without grace can save, that numbers without the knowledge of Christ by their obedience to the Law of Nature through the direction of right reason have been saved: Others ascribe not salvation directly to nature alone without grace, yet they make saving grace to depend upon nature, so that the right use of nature {62} doth draw by way of merit, at least by way of infallible dependence the grace of Regeneration. Others go not thus far in Pelagianism, yet they give too much to nature in the matter of salvation, they teach that sin hath not taken away the power of the understanding and of the will of man to believe and obey God, but only the exercise of that power; that the power of man’s Soul to all gracious works is not dead but bound in fetters, farther, that in the very first {63} act of our conversion, not only in all posterior acts of grace, God and Man, Nature and Grace, do concur as two partial causes, so that the whole effect of Conversion doth depend not only from God’s grace, but also the whole of it does flow from Man & Nature, yea, that which maketh Grace efficacious to Conversion and Salvation is not Grace but Nature alone; for the concurrence of Grace is oft (say they) alike in these who are converted, and those {64} who are never converted, in these who are saved, and those who are damned, in both they put a degree of grace simply equal, so that the only difference which casts the balance, the only reason, why the same degree of grace which is efficacious to convert and save one, yet is not efficacious for these effects in another, is alone in nature, even in the free-will of the one accepting and yielding to that degree of grace, which the free-will of the other {65} made inefficacious by its own resisting and rejection thereof.

In the second head of nature’s power to hinder Grace and Salvation, the most common and infamous conclusion is, that the free-will of man not only hath power to reject and refuse, to repel and frustrate, to overcome and make of none effect the most efficacious motions of the regenerating Spirit of God, but also very oft does put this power in practice, hindering God {66} when he intends to convert and save, by its invincible perverseness to obtain that his gracious end and merciful intention.

The errours of the first head the Arminians oft in word do cast them from themselves upon the Papists, yet in very deed they stumble too often upon them all.

The errours of the second head they deny not to be their Tenets: however for confutation {67} of all errours in both the heads let us confirm these two propositions.

First, neither Free-will, nor any other natural faculty in man hath any power at all to purchase either the beginning or midst of perfection either of grace or salvation, but both grace and glory cometh alone from God that quickens nature, dead in sin, and makes it to work not in the strength of itself, but alone of grace. {68}

Secondly, that as Nature cannot further grace nor salvation, so can it not hinder the Omnipotent power of the regenerating Spirit of God to call and convert, and save whomever he hath a purpose to call, convert, and save. For the full confirmation of the first proposition, see in Scripture these 3 grounds clearly set down.

Man by his free-will is not able for any spiritual good. First, That in no man by nature is any power at all to any spiritual good. {69}

Secondly, That in every man by nature not only is a simple impotency to good, but also an exceeding great inclination to all spiritual evil.

Thirdly, Whatever power to spiritual good, or whatever gracious operation is found in any man, the only cause of that good is from God, who works it in man, and makes man to work in the strength not of human Nature, but of divine Grace. {70}

For the first, man’s impotency, see John 6.44, No man can come to me except the Father draw him. Jer. 5.23, Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the Leopard his spots, then may ye also do good, that are accustomed to do evil, Here is man’s impotency to convert to God, or change his wicked nature, 1 Cor. 2.14, The natural man receives not the things of the Spirit of God, For they are foolishness to him, neither can he know them because they are spiritually discerned. No man can say that Jesus is {71} the Lord, 1 Cor. 12.3, 2 Cor. 3.5, Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing as of our selves, but our sufficiency is of God; Here the power to understand or think any good is denied to man of himself, Matt. 12.34, O generation of vipers how can ye being evil speak good things. 1 Cor. 14.3, No man can say, that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. Here holy and good speeches are denied to be in the power of nature. All power of good deeds is also removed, Matth. 7.18, {72} A corrupt tree cannot bring forth good fruit. John 15.5, Without me ye can do nothing, Whereupon Augustine commenting confounds Pelagius thus: What say {73} you, why deceive you your selves, not maintainers but casters down of freewill from the heights of pride through the voids of presumption into drowning deeps, men pleasing themselves of corrupt minds, and concerning the faith reprobate, for it is your sentence, that man of himself does justice. But the truth contradicts and says the branch cannot bring forth fruit of itself, unless it abide in the vine. If there be any sense in you, be amazed, for who ever thinks he can bring forth fruit of himself, is not in the vine; who is not in the vine {74} is not in Christ; who is not in Christ is not a Christian; These are your drowning deeps, and lest any should think that at least he might of himself bring forth some little fruit, he says not, without me you can bring forth a little fruit, but you can do nothing: Whether therefore it be little or much, it cannot be done without him, without whom nothing can be done.11

This for our impotency to all spiritual good. {75}

Man’s will is perverse and bent to all evil. For our perverseness and proclivity to all spiritual evil, see Gen. 6.5, God saw that every imagination of man’s heart was only evil continually; Jer. 7.5, The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked, who can know it; Rom. 7.14,18, I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwelleth no good, for I am sold under sin; Ephes. 2.5, We were dead in sins, and 5.8, Ye were sometimes darkness; Ezek. 48.4, I know that thou art obstinate, and thy neck is as an iron sinew, and thy brow is brass; Zechariah {76} 7.12, They made their heart as an adamant stone, lest they should hear the Law.
All good in man cometh only from grace. The third ground, that God alone works all our works in us, that our Illumination, Conversion, &c. flows from him alone, see, Ephes. 2.10, We are his workmanship created in Christ Jesus to good works. Psalm 5.10, Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me. 2 Cor. 4.6, God who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our {77} hearts. Phil. 2.13, It is God who worketh in us both to will and to do of his own good pleasure. Ezek. 36.26, A new heart will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you, and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh, and I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes; 1 Chron. 4.7, Who maketh thee to differ from another, and what hast thou that thou hast not received? Why doest thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it. {78}

We may see this doctrine of Scripture avowed often by all Christian Writers especially by Augustine and Bernard, against the Pelagians. Hear some few of their sayings. The 1st tells us, Man abusing {79} free-will lost both himself and it. For when by free-will sin came, free-will was lost: through the greatness of the first sin we lost freedom of will to {80} love God: Man in his Creation received a great strength of free-will, but by sin did lose it, by willing of evil, justly have we lost power to good, who by power to good freely did choose to will evil: We say not that by Adam’s sin free-will is lost, but that in men subject to Satan, it serves only for sinning, and is not able to make any live well and holily, except the will of man itself by the grace of God be made free: God without us makes us to will, when we will, {81} and will so that we do; he works with us, yet without him both making us to will and working with us when we will, we have no power to do any good or pious work: It is certain we will, when we will, but he makes us to will, of whom it is said, God works in us the will: We work but God in us works the work: It is good for us both to believe and speak thus, this is piety, this is truth, that there may be a humble and submissive confession, and all be given to {82} God: We live more safely, when we give all to God and do not commit ourselves partly to him, and partly to ourselves.12

Bernard: Not partly grace and partly free-will, but both the one and the other is all; But so that all is done in the one, and all from the other: What then wilt thou say does free-will? I answer shortly, it is saved, take away free-will and there shall be nothing which can be saved, take away grace and there shall be nothing {83} whereby to save. This work without two cannot be, the one in which, the other from which it may be done. God is author of salvation, free-will only the subject thereof, none can give it but God, nothing can receive it but free-will.13

The efficacious grace of God in man’s conversion is insuperable by man’s will. Our second proposition, which the Arminians profess most to oppose, to wit, that free-will nor natural corruption does never, & is never able to overcome the motions of the Spirit of God, when he purposes {84} to call efficaciously and convert: John 6.37, All that the Father given me shall come to me. 8.45, Every one that hath heard and learned of the Father, cometh unto me. Rom. 8.30, Whom he hath called, them he also justified; also who have efficacious grace, these have the spirit of Christ, and who have Christ’s Spirit are Christ’s members.

Again, not only the will of man doth ever obey God’s efficacious calling, but it must do {85} so, for the efficacy of God’s call stands in the removing of all the perverseness and stubbornness that is in the will, in making the heart new, soft and pliable to the Call, in making us will and believe, Phil. 1.29, Unto you it is given not only to believe but to suffer. Phil. 2.13, God worketh in you to will and to do. Ezek. 36.26, A new heart I will give to you, a new spirit will I put in you, I will take away the stony heart, and give you a heart of flesh.

Thirdly, GOD in {86} man’s conversion employs his strong and mighty power which the Devil, the World, and the Flesh cannot overcome, being the far stronger, Ephes. 1.19, That ye may know the exceeding greatness of his power to usward, who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, which he wrought in Christ when he raised him from the dead. 1 John 4.4, Ye have overcome them, for greater is he that is in you, than he that is in the world. Matth. 12.29, How can one enter into a strong {87} man’s house and spoil his goods, except he first bind the strong man, and then he will spoil his house.

Fourthly, The Creature cannot hinder its own Creation, nor the dead man his own quickening, nor the child his own generation, nor the darkness its own illumination, nor the white paper the writing on itself, nor the blind eye the restitution of its light, nor the weak person the draught of a strong hand: Now Scripture oft compares the {88} action of the Spirit converting a soul, to a creation, a new life, a regeneration, an illumination, &c.

Fifthly, if the will of man could overcome the efficacious working of the Spirit of God, then could the Decree of our Election and Salvation be made altogether uncertain, and oft be made null by the repugnance of man’s will, and the victory of our wickedness over the best, and most efficacious will of God, {89} but this were against Scripture, Isaiah 14.24, The Lord of Hosts hath sworn, surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass, and as I have purposed so shall it stand, the Lord of Hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it. 2 Chron. 20.6, In thy hand is there no power? So that none is able to withstand thee. Rom. 9.29, Who hath resisted his will? 8.30, Whom he hath predestinated, them he also glorified.

The Fathers go here the Scripture’s way: have {90} some passages of Augustine cited by Bellarmine himself: No will of any man resists God when he hath a mind to save. For to will or nill is so in the power of him that wills or nills that they do not hinder the will of God, nor overcome his power: doubtless, the will of man is not able to resist the will of God, God has so provided for the weakness of man’s will, that it should be led indeclinably and irresistibly so that how weak soever it is, it should not fall, nor by any opposition be broken.14 {91}

The fifth Article stated.
The fifth Article stated.

THE question of perseverance is stated diversely, the Arminians now and many Jesuits do maintain a possibility to fall away from grace totally and finally in all persons so long as they live, the most of the Papists grant that those who are elected cannot fall away finally, but after all interruptions there must be a return to grace, and that in them {92} there is a necessity of salvation: yet they say that many of the regenerate, and truly faithful, may fall away even finally.

There is a kind of Arminians, who follow Joannes Gerhardus Vossius, who put a degree of faith and grace, from which there is no deficiency, albeit from the estate of faith essentially true, and from regeneration they teach falling totally and finally; against all these we teach that God makes {93} to persevere and go on to the end, not only the elect but all the faithful, and that not only those who are rooted in a high and excellent degree of faith, but all whosoever have the least measure of true saving faith, who are regenerated, justified, sanctified, in all these God keeps in some heat in the smoking flax, puts under his hand when they fall, raises them ever up again, and leaves not the building he hath once grounded till he {94} hath crowned it with the Capstone.

The necessity of
proved from 
Matt. 24.29.
That thus it is, many Scriptures make evident: Matth. 24.29, He shall shew great signs and wonders that they shall seduce, if it were possible, the very elect, here the Elect cannot possibly be seduced, all the wonders of Antichrist, the most pregnant means that men and Devils can use to make the elect fall away do not prevail, for it is not possible that such should be so seduced {95} as to fall clean away from Christ.
The second from Jer. 32.39. Jer. 32.39, I will give them one heart and one way, that they may fear me for ever, and I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away from them to do them good, but I will put my fear in their heart, that they shall not depart from me. Here God promises to all the faithful, to all those with whom the new Covenant is made, that they shall get an heart from God to fear him, not for a time but for {96} ever, that he will make with them an everlasting Covenant that shall never be broken on either side, he assureth not only for himself, that he shall never change, but for them, that he will plant his fear in their heart in such a measure that they shall stick to God, not for a time, but so, that they shall never depart from him.
The third from John 10. John 10, But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep; my sheep hear my voice, and I give to them eternal Life, and they shall {97} never perish, neither shall any pluck them out of my Father’s hand. Behold, Christ’s sheep are those who believe, Christ assureth them all of Life eternal, assuredly they shall never perish because they are kept by his strong hand. The Father hath put them into the hand of his Son to be kept, yea, the Father’s own hand is about them, so that they cannot perish except there arise some enemy stronger than God the Father, to spoil him of his goods. {98}
The fourth from 1 John 2.19. 1 John 2.19, They went out from us, but they were not of us, for if they had been of us, without doubt they had continued with us, but they went out that it might be manifest that they were not of us. Who are they that do not persevere, who fall away from Truth and Grace; these who were never gracious, even before their Apostasy, for if ever they had been in the number of Christ’s faithful members, no doubt they would have continued so for ever. But God let them go {99} and depart that he might make manifest to the World, that Apostates even before the appearing of their Apostacy were never sound, never rooted, nor builded by faith on the rock, for if they had been such, when all storms of temptations had blown, they would have stood firm, and the Ports of hell should not have prevailed against them. They should have been as Mount Sion, which never is removed but abideth for ever. {100}
The fifth from Ephes. 1.13. Ephes. 1.13, In whom after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise, which is that earnest of your inheritance: Here all the faithful get the Spirit of Christ, as himself says, to be their Comforter, and to abide with them forever, to be a seal, and to assure them that they are God’s, that makes them call God Abba, Father, that witnesseth to them that they are the children of God, yea, God’s heirs, and Co-heirs with Christ, which is their earnest and first {101} fruits of life eternal, which gives them full assurance of hope, anchors their soul within the vail, and fills them with joy unspeakable and glorious.

Among the infinite passages of Augustine for our tenet, take but one, de Corrept. & Gratia, chapter 12. Unto the first {102} man who in that good estate wherein he was created righteous, had received a power not to sin, not to die; a power not to fall from his good estate, to him was {103} given the help of Perseverance: not such a gift whereby he should persevere, but such without the which he was not able by his free-will to persevere. But now unto the Saints, by the grace of God predestinated unto the Kingdom of God, not only such a help of perseverance is given, but such, that perseverance itself is given to them, not only so that without that gift they cannot persevere, but also that through that gift they cannot but persevere: {104} for he has not only said, without me ye can do nothing, but he saith also, "you have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and appointed you that you should go on and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain;" in which words he shews that he has not only given righteousness but perseverance therein: for Christ having so sent them that they go and bring forth fruit, and their fruit abides, who dare say perchance they shall not continue, for without {105} repentance are the gifts and calling of God, Christ praying for them that their faith fail not, without doubt it shall not fail to the end, and so shall persevere to the end, and the end of their life shall find it remaining, for now a greater liberty is needful against so many and so great temptations, which were not in Paradise, being guarded with the gift of perseverance, that this world with all his lusts, terrours, errours, might be overcome, & the Saints prevail against all {106} threats, all allurements, all power.15

The current of Scripture and Fathers runs so straight against the total and final apostacy of the Saints, that Arminius for all his boldness durst not, so long as he lived, set his breast against that stream, albeit his Scholars since have mainly set themselves to evert this Article, which is the chief ground of all the comfort that the soul of man hath in this miserable pilgrimage.

All baptized Infants are not regenerate. Of all their contrary argumentations consider {107} but one: Millions of these who were baptized in their infancy fall away finally and totally, but all these who were baptized in their infancy were truly regenerate, sanctified, justified, and put in the state of salvation, Ergo, millions of these who were truly regenerate, justified, sanctified, and put in the state of salvation, fall away totally and finally.

In this Popish argument the Arminians triumphed at the beginning, as our men16 do yet, but after a little trial {108} both Papists and Arminians, find it so foolish and impertinent that long ago they have cast it away.

It is easy to shew the falsity of the Minor [proposition] that all Baptized Infants are truly regenerate, &c. Scriptures, Fathers, Schoolmen, are all to the contrary; but leaving these I only shew that this assertion is against the Scottish Confession; the twenty-fifth Article testifies that the Reprobate only doth communicate in the outward benefits of the Sacraments, {109} that they get no fruit of Christ’s death, that in this life their sins are not forgiven them, that these blessings belong only to the Elect, that the Reprobate at their best are but chaff, and at no time are good wheat. Who [soever], therefore, avow that the Reprobate sometimes, to wit, in their infancy, are truly regenerate, justified, sanctified; who avow that Reprobates get many fruits of Christ’s death and their Sins sometimes forgiven them, they contradict clearly our {110} confession, yea almost all the confessions of the reformed Churches. If they will believe their good friend D. Francis White he will assure them that none but Papists and Lutherans will affirm reprobate infants by baptism to be regenerate.

Arminianism is contrary to the Confession of the Church of Scotland. How far the chief Arminian tenets are contrary to Scripture I have shewn; Consider in a few lines how much they are opposite to the Confession of our Kirk [Church], and so I close. They teach that our Election is of Faith, {111} Works, Perseverance, as antecedent either Causes or Conditions, or at least Qualities foreseen in us. Our Confession, Article 8, says that God hath chosen us of mere grace; that faith to believe in Christ and all grace we lost in Adam, is given us after our Election.

Again, they teach that Christ died for all, that in death he stood in the place of all without distinction of elect and reprobate, that all have the benefit of his death. Our Confession says, Article 8, that Christ suffered {112} for us, that is the elect, of whom alone the whole Article speaketh: Also that the benefits which the elect have common with the reprobate are but their Creation, no ways their Redemption and their Adoption thereby to be the sons of God: And in the 25th Article it is said, that the Reprobates have no benefit of Christ’s Death, Resurrection, or Ascension.

Lastly, they teach that many of Christ’s faithful members fall away and lose not only all grace, but salvation itself. {113} Our Confession, Article 25, contradicts, affirming, that all the faithful continue in the estate of Justification, that albeit their sins be great, yet they are not imputed but covered with Christ’s righteousness.

Again, it is one of the faithful’s privileges to go on constantly to the end, till they be conformed to Christ’s glorious body. And in the 21st Article, that the faithful in such a manner become flesh of Christ’s flesh, and bone of his bone, that he abides {114} in them and they in him forever, no less than the Godhead abides in the manhood of Christ, giving to it life and Immortality.

Our Confession crosseth their Doctrine of free-will, justification, & other their popish errours more clearly, but with those I do not meddle lest by further prolixity I should longer with-hold so great an Assembly from their most weighty Affairs.



1. Meaning the then present advocates of English Arminianism within Scotland.—JTK.

2. Prędest. c. 8. Pręsciebat ergo ait Pelagianus qui futuri erant sancti & immaculati per liberum voluntatis arbitrium, & ideo eos ante mundi Constitutionem elegit, quia tales futuros pręscivit.

3. Intueamur Apostoli verba atque videamus utrum propterea nos elegit quia sancti futuri eramus, an ut essemus, benedictus, inquit Deus, &c non quia futuri eramus sed ut essemus, nempe certum est, nempe manifestum est, ideo quippe tales eramus futuri quia elegit ipse prędestinans ut per gratiam ejus tales essemus, cernitis procul dubio, cernitis quanta manifestatione Apostolici eloquii defendatur hęc gratia, contra quam merita extollunt humana, tanquam homo aliquid det Deo & retribuatur ei.

4. De dono Perseve. antię cap. 7. Audiant & ipsi in hoc testimonio (prędestinati secundii propositum ejus qui universa operatur) ipse & ut incipiamus credere operatur qui universa operatur, nec fides ipsa pręcedit, non enim quia credimus sed ut credamus, elegit nos.

5. Contra istam veritatis tam claram tubam quis homi sobrię vigilantisq; fidei voces ullas admittat humanas.

6. Let the Reader note that this “Lutheran Error” was such an error as was maintained among the Lutherans in the days of our author, and not an error taught by Martin Luther. Luther’s work on the Bondage of the Will, is an able defence of the doctrine here vindicated by our author, and sufficiently overturns every notion that Election is dependent upon man’s free-will, by asserting the freedom and sovereignty of the will of God: “This, therefore, is also essentially necessary and wholesome for Christians to know: That God foreknows nothing by contingency, but that He foresees, purposes, and does all things according to His immutable, eternal, and infallible will. By this thunderbolt, ‘Free-will’ is thrown prostrate, and utterly dashed to pieces. Those, therefore, who would assert ‘Free-will,’ must either deny this thunderbolt, or pretend not to see it, or push it from them. &c. &c.”—Section 9. Among modern “Lutherans” there is a mixture of opinions on this subject, but it is to be feared that, by far, the greatest part of those called by this name hold rather to the errors of Arminius than to the doctrines of Luther.—JTK.

7. Ad hoc perduxi ratiocinationem ut dicerem non ergo elegit Deus opera eujusquam in pręscientat sed fidem in pręscientia elegit, ut quem sibi crediturum esse pręscivet ipsum eligeret, ... sed nondum diligentius quęsiveram, nec adhuc inveneram qualis sit Electio gratię de qua Apostolus.

8. Vestrę caliginis latebra propter quod profecto desipitis, quia dicente veritate non ex operibus sed ex vocante, vos dicitis ex futuris operibus quę Deus illum facturum esse pręsciebat Iacobum esse dilectum atque ita contradicitis Apostole dicenti non ex pręsentibus operibus sid ex futuris.—De Contra Duas Epistolas Pelagianorum, lib. 2.

9. Numquid dixit: Non ex operibus sed ex credente? Prorsus etiam hoc abstulit homini ut totum daret Deo, dicens sed ex vocante, non quacumque vocatione, sed qua vocatione fit credens.—De Praedestinatione Sanctorum.

10. Omnes homines, omne hominum genus intelligimus per quascunque differentias distributum, Reges privatos, nobiles ignobiles, sublimes humiles, doctos indoctos, integri corporis debiles, ingeniosos tardicordes fatuos, divites, pauperes, mediocres, mares, fœminas, infantes, pueros, adolescentes, Juvenes, seniores, senes, in linguis omnibus, in moribus omnibus, in artibus omnibus, in professionibus omnibus, in voluntatum & conscientiarum innumerabili varietate constitutos, & si quid aliud differentiarum est in hominibus.

11. Quid dicitis, quid vos ipsos decipitis, non assertores sed pręcipitatores liberi arbitrii ex alto elationis per inama pręsumptionis, in profunda submersionis, homines sibi placentes, mente corrupti, reprobi circa fidem, nempe vox vestra est, quod homo ex seipso facit justitiam, sed veritas contradicit & dicit Palme non potest fructum ferre a semetipso, nisi manserit in vire, Si est in vobis ullus sensus, horrete, qui enem ą semetipso fructum existimit ferre, in vite non est; qui in vite non est, in Christo non est; qui in Christo non est, Christianus non est. Hęc sunt profunda submersionis vestra & ne quisquam putaret saltem parvum aliquem fructum posse ą semetipso se ferre, non ait quia sine me parum potestis facere, sed nihil potestis facere, sive ergo parum sive multum, sine illo fieri non potest, sine quo nihil fieri potest.—Tractus 81.

12. Libero arbitrio male utens homo & se perdidit & ipsum, nam cum libero peccaretur arbitrio amissum est liberum arbitrium. Liberum arbitrium ad diligendum Deum primi peccati granditate perdidimus, magnas liberi Arbitrii vires homo cum crearetur, accepit, sed peccando amisit, per velle malumrecte perdidit posse bonum, qui per posse bonum, libere elegit velle malum. Peccato Adę liberum arbitrium de hominum natura periisse non dicimus sed ad peccandum valere in hominibus subditis diabolo, ad bene autem picque vivendum non valere, nisi ipsa voluntas hominis Dei gratia fuerit liberata ut velimus sine nobis operatur, cum volumus & sic volumus ut faciamus nobiscum cooperatur; tamen sine illo vel operante ut velimus vel cooperante cum volumus ad bona pictatis opera nihil valmus. Certum est nos velle cum volumus, sed ille facit ut velimus de qło dictum est, Deus in nobis operatur velle, nos operamur sed Deus in nobis operatur & operari hoc nobis expedit & credere & dicere, hoc est pium hoc est verum, ut sit humilis & submissa confessio & detur totum Deo. Tutiores vivimus, si demus totum Deo, non autem nos illi ex parte & nobis ex parte committimus.

13. Bernard. Non partim gratia & partim liberum arbitrium, sed totum quidem hoc, & totum illa sed ut totum in illo sit & totum ex illa. Quid igitur ais, agit liberum arbitrium. Respondeo breviter, salvatur, tolle liberum arbitrium non erit quod salvetur, tolle gratiam non erit unde salvetur, opus hoc sine duobus esse non potest, uno ą quo sit, altero in quo vel cui sit. Deus autor est salutis liberum arbitrium tantum capax est dare illam, nisi Deus, nec capere valet nisi liberum arbitrium.

14. Deo volenti salvum facere nullum hominum resistit arbitrium? Sic enim velle seu nolle in volentis aut nolentis est potestate ut divinam voluntatem non impediat, nos superest potestatem, non est dubitandum voluntati Dei voluntatem humanam resistere non posse, provisum est infirmitati voluntatis humanę ut indeclinabiliter & inseparabiliter ageretur & ideo quantumvis infirma non deficeret, nec adversitate aliqua frangeretur.

15. Primo itaque homini qui in eo bono in quo factus erat rectus acceperat posse non peccare, posse non mori, posse ipsum bonum non deserere, datum est adjutorium perseverantię, sine quo per liberum arbitrium perseverare non posset: Nunc vero sanctis in regnum Dei per gratiam prędestinatis non tantum tale adjutorium perseverantię datur sed tale ut ipsis perseverantia donetur, non solum ut sine itso dono perseverantes esse non possint, verum etiam ut per hoc donum non nisi perseverantes sint, non solum enim dixit, sine me nihil potestis facere, verum etiam dixit: Non vos me elegistis, sed ego vos elegi & posui vos, ut eatis & fructum feratis & fructus vester maneat; quibus verbis non solum justitiam, sed & in ea perseverantiam se dedisse monstravit: Christo enim sic cos ponente ut eant & fructum ferant & fructus corum maneat, quis audeat dicere: Forsitan non manebit? Sine pœnitentia enim sunt donum & vocatio Dei, pro his igitur interpellante Christo ne deficiat fides eorum, sine dubio non deficien usque in finem, ac per hoc perseverabit usque in finem nec nisi manentem vitę hujus inveniet finis: Major quippe libertas necessaria adversus tot & tantas tentationes, quę in Paradiso non fuerunt dono perseverantię munita atque firmata, ut cum omnibus amoribus, terroribus, erroribus suis, vincatur hic mundus: ... quo sancti cuncta minantia, cuncta invitantia, cuncta cruciantia superarent?

16. Meaning the then present advocates of English Arminianism within Scotland.—JTK.